Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2016, Page: 1-6
Worldwide Prostate Cancer Epidemiology: Differences Between Regions, Races, and Awareness Programs
Srikanta Banerjee, Johns Hopkins School of Global Health, Baltimore, United States; Faculty Member, University of Roehampton Health Sciences, London, UK; Faculty Member, University of New England College of Graduate and Professional Studies, Portland, United States
Aaron Kaviani, Campbell Health and Education, Ontario, Canada
Received: Dec. 17, 2015;       Accepted: Dec. 23, 2015;       Published: Jan. 29, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijcems.20160201.11      View  5154      Downloads  128
Abstract
Prostate cancer, according to the World Health Organization, is the second most common cause of cancer worldwide. With an estimated 1.1 million people affected by prostate cancer in 2012, composing 15% of all new cancer cases worldwide, this condition poses a significant burden of mortality and morbidity on society. Even though the burden of prostate cancer is present worldwide, there are disparities in mortality rates worldwide. While in Sub-Saharan Africa and Caribbean, the age-adjusted mortality rates are as high as 24 per 100,000, in Asia the age-adjusted mortality rates are as low 2.9 per 100,000. Specific countries in Sub-Saharan Africa like Uganda have a prostate cancer mortality rate as high as 38.8 per 100,000, which is close to the incidence rate of 48.2 per 100,000. Even though in the United Kingdom the incidence rate is much higher at 111.1 per 100,000, the mortality rate is comparable to that of Sub-Saharan Africa at 22.8 per 100,000. As demonstrated in this global review of prostate cancer, the age-adjusted incidence rate and mortality rate are closer together in Sub-Saharan Africa than in high income countries. Also, there are disparities in age-adjusted mortality rates of prostate cancer. There is plausibly a large gap in data on incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer, leading to potential underreporting of incidence rates. There are also different awareness related gaps in developing and developed countries. Improved surveillance systems need to be established in order to improve early detection screening programs and prioritized interventions for evidence-based policy for prostate cancer in all countries.
Keywords
Prostate Cancer, Incidence, Global Health, Sub-Saharan Africa, Gleason Score, Prostate Specific Antigen, Awareness
To cite this article
Srikanta Banerjee, Aaron Kaviani, Worldwide Prostate Cancer Epidemiology: Differences Between Regions, Races, and Awareness Programs, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medical Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcems.20160201.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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