Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2017, Page: 47-56
A Histomorphological Study on the Olfactory Bulb of Diabetic Albino Rats
Muhamed Faizal, Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Received: Jul. 31, 2017;       Accepted: Aug. 18, 2017;       Published: Sep. 26, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijcems.20170304.12      View  1360      Downloads  44
Long standing hyperglycemia is generally associated with a decline in the chemical senses including smell due to its unfavorable destructive effects on the small sized neurons of the Olfactory bulb (OB). Accordingly, the current study was aimed to analyze the effect of experimental hyperglycemia on OB of albino rats. To detect a possible change on the olfactory bulb during hyperglycemia, 36 albino rats were divided into six groups of six rats each and were designated as control, two week, one month, two month, four month and six month respectively. Diabetes was induced with single dose of streptozotocin (STZ-60 mg/kg, IP). The inductions of diabetes were confirmed by measuring the blood glucose levels in the tail blood with a Glucometer. At the end of each experimental period animals were euthanized by deep ether anesthesia and blood samples were collected by direct puncture of heart for biochemical analysis. Animals were perfused with Karnovsky fixative. After two days tissue specimen were collected and processed for light microscopic studies. Biochemical analysis of serum revealed increased serum creatinine and reduced serum total protein. Histopathology and histomorphometry of OB revealed that the progressively increasing duration of hyperglycemia was associated with noticeable decreased diameter of OB glomeruli, decrease diameter of mitral cells and thickening of supporting connective tissue around the OB and blood vessels. It is concluded that the association of the long-standing hyperglycemia with frequent occurrence of hypercellular glomeruli and misplaced mitral cells, decreased diameter of OB glomeruli and mitral cells, subtle laminar disarray and added deposition of collagen fibers around OB and blood vessels appear to be important contributing factors responsible for the derangement of olfactory function in diabetics.
Collagen, Diabetes, Glomeruli, Mitral Cells, Olfactory Bulb, STZ-Induced
To cite this article
Muhamed Faizal, Aijaz Ahmed Khan, A Histomorphological Study on the Olfactory Bulb of Diabetic Albino Rats, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medical Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2017, pp. 47-56. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcems.20170304.12
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ozougwu JC, Obimba KC, Belonwu CD, Unakalamba CB. “The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology. 2013; 4: 46-57.
Kangralkar VA, Patil SD, Bandivadekar RM. “Oxidative stress and diabetes”: a review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Applications. 2010; 1: 38–45.
Ceriello A, Motz E. “Is oxidative stress the pathogenic mechanism underlying insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease? The common soil hypothesis revisited”. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2004; 24: 816–823.
Tomlinson DR, Gardiner NJ. “Glucose Neurotoxicity”. Nature Publishing Group. 2008; 9: 36–45.
Guven A, Yavuz O, Cam M, Comunoglu C, Sevinc O. “Central nervous system complications of diabetes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a histopathological and immunohistochemical examination”. International Journal of Neuroscience. 2009; 119: 1155–1169.
Rudchenko A, Akude E, Cooper E. “Synapses on sympathetic neurons and parasympathetic neurons differ in their vulnerability to diabetes”. Journal of neuroscience. 2014; 34: 8865-8874.
Grazyna L, Thomas N, Claes-Goran O, Vladimer D, Cesare P. “Type 2 diabetes-induced neuronal pathology in the piriform cortex of the rat is reversed by the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4”. Oncotarget. 2016; 7: 5865-5876.
Srinivasan S, Stevens M, Wiley JW. 2000. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy- Evidence for Apoptosis and Associated Mitochondrial Dysfunction. Diabetes. 2000; 49: 1932-1938.
Spielman AL. “Chemosensory function and dysfunction”. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine. 1998; 9: 267-291.
Hillson R. 2014. “Taste and smell in diabetes”. Practical diabetes. 2014; 31: 269-271.
Standring S, Ellis H, Healy JC, Johnson D, Williams A, Collins P. “Gray’s anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice”. 40th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier. 2008; p. 1030.
Marfaing-Jallat P, Portha B, Penicaud L. “Altered conditioned taste aversion and glucose utilization in related brain nuclei of diabetic GK rats”. Brain research bulletin. 1995; 37: 639–643.
Weinstock RS, Wright HN, Smith DU. “Olfactory dysfunction in diabetes mellitus”. Physiology and Behavior. 1993; 53: 17-21.
Naka A, Riedl M, Luger A, Hummel T, Mueller CA. “Clinical significance of smell and taste disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus”. European Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. 2010; 267: 547–550.
Patterson DS, Turner P, Smart JV. “Smell threshold in diabetes mellitus”. Nature. 1966; 209: 625.
Bramerson A, Johansson L, Ek L, Nordin S, Bende M.. “Prevalence of olfactory dysfunction: the skovde population-based study”. The Laryngoscope. 2004; 114: 733–737.
Thiebaud N, Johnson MC, Butler JL, Bell GA, Ferguson KL, Fadool AR, Fadool JC, Gale AM, Gale DS, Fadool DA. “Hyperlipidemic diet causes loss of olfactory sensory neurons, reduces olfactory discrimination, and disrupts odor-reversal learning”. The Journal of neuroscience. 2014; 34: 6970–6984.
Dennis JC, Coleman ES, Swyers SE, Moody W, Wright JC, Judd R, Zhong Q, Morrison EE. “Changes in mitotic rate and GFAP expression in the primary olfactory axis of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats”. Journal of Neurocytology. 2005; 34: 3-10.
Gao LF, Huang MM, Lei H. “Diffusion Abnormality in Olfactory Bulbs of Type-I Diabetic Rats”. Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Scientific Meeting and Exhibition. 2011; 19: 2302.
Gardoni F, Kamal A, Bellone C, Biessels GJ, Ramakers GMJ, Cattabeni F, Gispen WH, Luca MD. “Effects of streptozotocin-diabetes on the hippocampal NMDA receptor complex in rats”. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2002; 80: 438-447.
Shanmugam KR, Mallikarjuna K, Kesireddy N, Reddy KS. “Neuroprotective effect of ginger on anti-oxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats”. Food and chemical toxicology. 2011; 30: 893-897.
Doddigarla Z, Parwez I, Abidi S, Ahmad J. Effect of Melatonin and Chromium Picolinate Administration to High Carbohydrate Diet-Fed Male Wistar Rats. Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine. 2017; 11: 1-7.
Liu CC, Hu J, Tsai CW, Yue M, Melrose HL, Kanekiyo T, Bu GJ. “Neuronal LRP1 regulates glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the brain”. The Journal of Neuroscience 2015; 35: 5851–5859.
American Diabetes Association. 2. “Classification and diagnosis of diabetes”. Diabetes care. 2015; 38: 8-16.
Helkala EL, Niskanen L, Viinamaki H, Partanen J, Uusitupa M. “Short-term and long-term memory in elderly patients with NIDDM”. Diabetes Care. 1995; 18: 681-685.
Selim SA, Selim AO. “Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus on the cerebellar cortex of adult male albino rats”: histological and immunohistochemical study. The Egyptian Journal of Histology. 2013; 36: 103-113.
Air EL, Strowski MZ, Benoit SC, Conarellosl, Salituro GM, Guan XM, Liu K, Woods SC, Zhang BB. “Small molecule insulin mimetics reduce food intake and body weight and prevent development of obesity”. Nature Medicine. 2002; 8: 179-183.
Jain D, Bansal MK, Dalvi R, Upganlawar A, Somani R. “Protective effect of diosmin against diabetic neuropathy in experimental rats”. Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2014; 12: 35-41.
Doddigarla Z, Parwez I, Abidi S, Ahmad J. “Effect of Chromium Picolinate and Melatonin either in Single or in a Combination in Alloxan Induced Male Wistar Rats”. Journal of Biomedical Sciences. 2016; 6: 1-7.
Elsy B, Maheshwari V, Khan AA. “Effects of d α-Tocopherol on Progression of Reepithelialization, Matrix Remodeling and Appearance of Epidermal Appendages in Secondary Skin Wounds of Diabetic Rats”. Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research. 2017; 4: 1-7.
Faizal PAM, Khan AA, Elsy B. “Effect of experimental hyperglycemia on the trigeminal ganglia of albino rats”. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research. 2017; 7: 191-198.
Kosaka K, Kosaka T. “Synaptic organization of the glomerulus in the main olfactory bulb: compartments of the glomerulus and heterogeneity of the periglomerular cells”. Anatomical science international. 2005; 80: 80-90.
Dilkash NA, Khan AA. “Asymmetry due to anomalous unilateral enlargement of olfactory bulb in Albino rat”: A case report. Current Neurobiology. 2010; 1: 113-117.
Mousa AM, Shehab AA. “The effect of manganese on the olfactory bulb of adult male albino rat and the role of meloxicam”: A histological and immunohistochemical study. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure. 2015; 31: 08-18.
Shipley MT, Ennis M. “Functional organization of olfactory system”. Journal of Neurobiology. 1996; 30: 123–176.
Pinching AJ, Powell TP. “The neuron types of the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb”. Journal of cell science. 1971; 9: 305-345.
Homma R, Kovalchuk Y, Konnerth A, Cohen LB, Garaschuk O. “In vivo functional properties of juxtaglomerular neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb”. Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 2013; 7: 1-23.
Zheng LM, Ravel N, Jourdan F. “Topography of centrifugal acethvtcholinesterase-positive fibres in the olfactory bulb of the rat: evidence for original projections in atypical glomeruli”. Neuroscience. 1987; 23: 1083-1093.
Whitman MC, Greer CA. Adult neurogenesis and the olfactory system. Prog Neurobiol. 2009; 89: 162-175.
Jing YH, Qi CC, Yuan L, Liu XW, Gao LP, Yin J. Adult neural stem cell dysfunction in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle leads to diabetic olfactory defects. Neural. Reg. Res. 2017; 12: 1111-1118.
Bhatnagar KP, Kennedy RC, Baron G, Greenberg RA. “Number of mitral cells and the bulb volume in the aging human olfactory bulb”: a quantitative morphological study. Anatomical record. 1987; 218: 73–87.
Hinds JW, Mc Nelly NA. Aging of the rat olfactory bulb: growth and atrophy of constituent layers and changes in size and number of mitral cells. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1977; 72: 345–367.
Malak HW, Saleh SI, Salah El Din RA, Hamid HFA. “Histological and immunohistochemical study on the consequences of acute glycemic level alteration on the dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve integrity in neonatal albino rats”. Egyptian Journal of Histology. 2015; 38: 332-345.
Faizal MPA, Khan AA. “Impact of Experimental Hyperglycemia on the Lumbosacral Dorsal Root Ganglia of Albino Rats”. International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences. 2017; 6: 158-164.
Eltony SA, Elgayar SA. “Histological study on effect of Nigella sativa on aged olfactory system of female albino rat”. Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology. 2014; 55: 325-334.
Nandy K. “Neuronal degeneration in aging and after experimental injury”. Experimental Gerontology Journal. 1972; 7: 303–311.
Keller JN, Dimayuga E, Chen Q, Thorpe J, Gee J, Ding Q. “Autophagy, proteasomes, lipofuscin, and oxidative stress in the aging brain”. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 2004; 36: 2376– 2391.
Terman A, Brunk UT. “Aging as a catabolic malfunction”. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 2004; 36: 2365–2375.
Young B, O’Dowd G, Woodford P. “Wheater’s Functional Histology”- A text and colour atlas. Churchill living stone 6th edition. Reprint 2016; 139 p
Katz ML, Robison WG Jr. “What is lipofuscin? Defining characteristics and differentiation from other autofluorescent lysosomal storage bodies”. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2002; 34: 169-184.
Vaishnav RA, Getchell ML, Poon HF, Barnett KR, Hunter SA, Pierce WM, Klein JB, Butterfield DA, Getchell TV. “Oxidative stress in the aging murine olfactory bulb: redox proteomics and cellular localization”. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 2007; 85: 373–385.
Sugaya A, Sugimioto H, Mogi N, Tsujigami H, Deguchi S. “Experimental diabetes accelerates accumulation of fluorescent pigments in rat trigeminal neurons”. Brain Research. 2004; 27: 132-134.
Schmidt RE, Plurad SB, Parvin CA, Roth KA. “Effect of Diabetes and Aging on Human Sympathetic Autonomic Ganglia”. Americal Journal of Pathology. 1993; 143: 143-153.
De Vriese AS, Flyvbjerg A, Mortier S, Tilton RG, Lameire NH. “Inhibition of the interaction of AGE-RAGE prevents hyperglycemia-induced fibrosis of the peritoneal membrane”. Journal of American Society of nephrology. 2003; 14: 2109-2118.
Olubunmi A, Adebiyi, Oluwafeyisetan O, Adebiyi, Peter MO, Owira. “Naringin Reduces Hyperglycemia-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis by Relieving Oxidative Stress”. Plos One. 2016; 11: 1-15.
Ronco C, Grammaticopoulos S, Rosner M, Decal M, Soni S, Lentini P. “Oliguria, Creatinine and other biomarkers of acute kidney injury”. Contributions Nephrol. 2010; 164: 118-27.
Ceriello A, Morocutti A, Franceschina M, Quagliaro L, Moro M, Damante G. “Defective intracellular Antioxidant Enzyme Production in Type 1 Diabetic Patients With Nephropathy”. American Diabetic association. 2000; 49: 2170-2177.
Sjoholm A, Nystrom T. “Inflammation and the etiology of type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. 2006; 22: 04–10.
Punithavathi VR, Anuthama R, Prince PS. “Combined treatment with naringin and vitamin C ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male wistar rats”. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 2008; 28: 806-813.
Almeida DATD, Braga CP, Novelli ELB, Fernandes AAH. “Evaluation of Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress in STZ Induced Rats Treated with Antioxidant Vitamin”. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 2012; 55: 527-536.
Elsy B, Maheshwari V, Khan AA. “Effects of d α-Tocopherol on Progression of Reepithelialization, Matrix Remodeling and Appearance of Epidermal Appendages in Secondary Skin Wounds of Diabetic Rats”. Journal of Dermatology and clinical research. 2016; 4: 1-7.
Browse journals by subject